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Lower back pain is a common concern for runners that impacts both performance and overall well-being. The good news is, a pain-free and enjoyable running experience is achievable. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore the causes of lower back pain when running, the anatomy involved, and effective prevention strategies. 

7 Causes of Lower Back Pain When Running

Whether you’re a casual jogger or a dedicated marathoner, it’s important to understand the reasons for lower back pain. In the upcoming sections, we’ll break down the common factors and causes that contribute to this discomfort when running.

  1. Muscle Strain

Muscle strain is a leading cause of lower back pain in runners, often resulting from overexertion, incorrect form or inadequate warm-up. Essentially, when the muscles are pushed beyond their limits, especially without a proper warm-up, they become susceptible to strain. Maintaining correct running form plays a pivotal role in preventing muscle strain because improper posture and movement can exacerbate the pain. 

  1. Overuse Injuries

Overuse injuries manifest when runners push themselves excessively without allowing sufficient recovery time. The continuous pounding on hard surfaces, coupled with prolonged periods of high mileage and insufficient rest, can lead to chronic lower back pain. A well-balanced training regimen that integrates adequate rest and recovery is essential for preventing overuse injuries. This will ensure the body can withstand the demands of running without succumbing to prolonged stress on the lower back.

  1. Muscle Imbalances

Muscle imbalances, where certain muscle groups (like the quadriceps and hip flexors) are stronger than others, can contribute to uneven forces on the spine that potentially lead to lower back pain. Correcting these imbalances through targeted exercises that engage weaker muscle groups will promote muscular equilibrium and prevent further discomfort.

  1. Biomechanical Factors

Biomechanical factors include concerns such as poor posture, gait abnormalities or an uneven stride. These issues, if left unattended, can contribute to lower back pain and discomfort during running. Professional biomechanical assessments can identify and address these issues, optimizing running mechanics.

  1. Running Form

Maintaining proper running form is essential for safeguarding the lower back. Hunching forward, overstriding or leaning too far back during runs can exert undue stress on this vulnerable area. Recognizing and correcting these common mistakes is pivotal for injury prevention. 

  1. Footwear and Equipment

Wearing proper running shoes is very important. Worn-out shoes or those lacking adequate support can exacerbate lower back pain. By prioritizing well-suited footwear, runners can proactively address a potential source of discomfort and enhance their overall running experience.

  1. Pre-Existing Conditions

Runners with preexisting conditions like herniated discs, hyperlordosis or sciatica may be more susceptible to lower back pain. Seeking medical advice and adapting training techniques accordingly is vital for long-term health and pain-free running experiences.

Where Is The Pain Coming From? 6 Possibilities

Understanding the basics of your body is key to tackling lower back pain while running. In the upcoming sections, we’ll talk about the significance of the lumbar spine, the tiny but crucial facet joints and the Sacroiliac joint (SI joint) as they pertain to running comfort. We’ll also touch on the connection between hip flexors and the lumbar spine, the support from ligaments and connective tissues and the impact of conditions like herniated discs and sciatica. 

Lumbar Spine

The lumbar spine is your body’s support system, especially when it comes to lower back health. It is comprised of five vertebrae, from L1 to L5, and plays a crucial role in shouldering a significant portion of your body’s weight, particularly during running. These discs function as shock absorbers. As you hit the pavement or trail while running, these discs quietly absorb the impact, ensuring a smoother, less jarring experience for your lumbar spine.

Facet Joints

Facet joints are the small connectors that link the vertebrae in your spine. They play a crucial role in both stability and mobility. These joints also facilitate the fluid movement essential for running. However, when they face issues like inflammation or irritation, the support they provide is disrupted, contributing to lower back pain. 

Sacroiliac Joint (SI Joint)

The SI joint is situated at the base of the spine, playing a pivotal role in transferring forces between the upper body and legs during activities like running. If the SI joint experiences dysfunction, it can lead to discomfort, resulting in pain in the lower back and hips. Dysfunction of the SI joint could be caused by factors such as poor biomechanics or muscle imbalances. 

Hip Flexors and Muscles

Hip flexors are a group of muscles responsible for flexing the hip joint, including notable ones like the psoas major and the iliacus. These muscles, situated in the pelvic region, play a pivotal role in the mechanics of running. The surrounding muscles, encompassing the lower back area, provide additional support and stability during dynamic movements. Together, the coordinated action of hip flexors and surrounding muscles ensures fluid and efficient running mechanics. Tight or imbalanced hip flexors can lead to discomfort in the lower back. 

Ligaments and Connective Tissues

Ligaments and connective tissues play a vital role in stabilizing the spine and pelvis. In the context of running, they provide essential support that contributes to the overall stability necessary for comfortable movement. Injuries to these structures can lead to discomfort and compromised lower back stability during running. 

Herniated Discs and Sciatica

A herniated disc occurs when the cushion-like disc between the vertebrae in the lumbar spine ruptures or bulges, potentially leading to nerve compression. This compression, in turn, can give rise to sciatica. Sciatica is a condition marked by pain that radiates down the leg, following the path of the sciatic nerve. These conditions are not natural components of the anatomy but rather injuries that can impact you, especially during running. 

Step 1: Prevention and Warm-Up

While lower back pain may stem from various factors, adopting preventive measures during a well-executed warm-up routine can significantly mitigate the risk of discomfort. All of the preventative actions outlined below contribute to a more resilient and pain-resistant running experience.

Warm-Up Routine

It’s important to begin each run with a simple yet crucial step: a proper warm-up that involves stretching and light cardio. As you do this, your blood will start to flow which will gently loosen your muscles and prepare your body for the run ahead. By making a warm-up routine a habit, you’re preventing injuries and setting the stage for a more enjoyable and pain-free run every time.

Dynamic Stretches

Incorporating dynamic stretches into your warm-up routine is a key strategy to enhance mobility without inducing muscle fatigue. This approach ensures that your muscles are not only adequately prepared for the run but also primed for long-term health, minimizing the risk of lower back pain. Dynamic stretches involve engaging movements that actively stretch and flex your muscles such as leg swings, high knees and arm circles.

Core Activation

Activating your core muscles during a warm-up is crucial for stabilizing the spine and reducing the risk of lower back strain. To incorporate this into your warm-up routine, consider exercises like planks and leg raises. These movements effectively engage and strengthen the core, preparing your body for physical activities. 

Proper Running Form

Proper running form is a preventive measure in itself. Good form reduces strain on the lower back by ensuring even distribution of the body’s weight and alignment of the spine. To achieve optimal running form, maintain an upright posture, engage your core muscles, keep your shoulders relaxed and ensure a smooth and controlled stride. Avoid overstriding and allow your arms to swing naturally in coordination with your leg movements. Additionally, focus on landing mid-foot rather than on your heels to promote a more efficient and injury-resistant running technique.

Running Surfaces

Running on uneven or hard surfaces can amplify the impact on the lower back, potentially leading to discomfort or injury. To mitigate these risks, it is advisable to choose smooth and well-paved routes such as a dedicated running path in a park or along a waterfront. These paths are typically constructed with even surfaces, free from irregularities and provide a runner-friendly environment that minimizes the impact on joints and lowers the risk of lower back discomfort.

Cool-Down and Recovery

After focusing on running form during your workout, incorporating a thorough cool-down helps your body transition from intense activity to a state of relaxation. A beneficial cool-down routine could involve static stretches targeting the lower back and hamstrings. For instance, include a standing hamstring stretch by reaching towards your toes or a seated lower back stretch with a gentle twist. These stretches promote flexibility, alleviate muscle tension and enhance the overall recovery process. By dedicating a few minutes to these static stretches, you not only support your muscles in recovering but also contribute to a more flexible and injury-resistant body.

Foam rolling is a valuable technique for releasing tension in the lower back and surrounding muscles. Investing in a foam roller and including it in your post-run routine allows you to target specific areas, applying pressure to release knots and tightness. By gently rolling along the muscles surrounding the spine, as well as focusing on connected muscle groups like the glutes and hamstrings, you can alleviate tension and promote better muscle flexibility. 

Step 2: Strength Training and Exercises

Strength training and cross-training are pivotal for preventing lower back pain while running. Let’s take a closer look at how incorporating these practices into your routine can significantly contribute to overall strength, stability and a reduced risk of lower back discomfort.

Strength Training

Strength training is crucial if you are a runner because it plays a fundamental role in supporting the lower back during your runs. For instance, core muscles such as the rectus abdominis and obliques provide essential stability which helps distribute the impact of each stride and reduce the strain on the lower back. By incorporating strength training exercises that target these core muscles into your routine, you fortify your body against the demands of running, promoting a more resilient and pain-free experience. Let’s take a look at other important parts of your body to strength train: 

Lower Back-Specific Exercises

Of course, strengthening your lower back muscles is also incredibly important. Exercises such as hyperextensions or back extensions specifically target the lower back muscles, providing crucial support for runners. It’s essential to prioritize proper form when performing these exercises to maximize their effectiveness and minimize the risk of injury. Focusing on controlled movements and engaging the targeted muscles ensures that your lower back receives the intended benefits.

Incorporating Compound Exercises

Exercises like squats and deadlifts will engage multiple muscle groups, including those in the lower back, glutes and hamstrings. Strengthening these muscles is essential for a consistently stable and safe running experience. Remember to prioritize proper form and gradually increase intensity to ensure a well-rounded and effective strength training program.

Balancing Muscular Imbalances

When certain muscle groups, like the quadriceps, overpower the lower back muscles, it can lead to imbalances that increase stress on the lower back during activities such as running. To address this, include exercises that specifically target the lower back to promote a balanced and symmetrical distribution of strength across muscle groups. This proactive approach helps prevent potential discomfort or injuries associated with muscle imbalances.


Cross-training with exercises like swimming, cycling or yoga is valuable for runners because it targets different muscle groups and enhances cardiovascular health. Participating in a variety of physical activities not only prevents monotony in your fitness routine but also reduces the risk of overuse injuries associated with the repetitive motions in running. Other benefits of cross-training include:

Impact Reduction

Cross-training reduces the impact on the lower back by offering a respite from the constant pounding experienced during running. Low-impact activities such as swimming or cycling provide a cardiovascular workout while significantly decreasing strain on the lower back. This allows your lower back to recover from the repetitive stress of running while maintaining overall fitness levels. 

Flexibility and Mobility

Exercises found in yoga or pilates play a crucial role in cross-training for runners. These activities contribute to enhanced flexibility and improved range of motion, translating into a more efficient running form and a reduced risk of lower back pain. By incorporating these exercises into your routine, you promote supple muscles and joints which leads to a smoother and more resilient running experience. 

Rest and Recovery

Scheduling cross-training days strategically in between running days is particularly effective in reducing the risk of overuse injuries. These exercises allow your body to rest and recover without sacrificing a workout entirely.

Step 3: Lifestyle and Sleep

Your lifestyle and sleep patterns significantly influence how your lower back feels during running. Prioritize listening to your body, and if you experience discomfort or pain during running, consider modifying your activity or taking a break to avoid exacerbating the pain. Over-the-counter pain relievers, like ibuprofen or naproxen, can offer temporary relief by alleviating pain and reducing inflammation.

Additionally, incorporating gentle stretching routines into your routine can help relieve muscle tension and tightness in the lower back. Effective stretches such as the cat-cow stretch, child’s pose and knee-to-chest stretches specifically target the lower back, promoting flexibility and alleviating discomfort. By integrating these practices—and the ones below—into your routine, you enhance your body’s resilience, have better recovery and enjoy an overall more comfortable running experience.

Posture Awareness

Maintaining good posture throughout the day is paramount for promoting a healthy lower back. Be mindful of your sitting and standing habits by prioritizing proper spinal alignment to minimize additional strain on your lower back. This conscious approach not only supports overall back health but also reduces the risk of chronic discomfort or pain.

Sleep Quality

Sleep is a fundamental component of the recovery process as it promotes healing and allows muscles and tissues to recuperate from the demands of physical activity. Prioritize quality sleep with a comfortable mattress and proper pillow support and make sure that you’re getting a consistent amount each night.  

Hydration and Nutrition

Dehydration can exacerbate these issues, impacting overall performance and recovery. Therefore, staying hydrated is another key to mitigating muscle tightness and discomfort. Additionally, a balanced diet rich in nutrients will specifically support muscle and joint health. 

Final Thoughts

Now that you possess valuable insights to address and prevent lower back pain while running, make sure to Implement the strategies you’ve learned. Whether it’s refining your running form, incorporating strength training or practicing flexibility exercises, you can enjoy pain-free running. For more information on healthy running practices or to connect with a medical professional, visit UCF Health today.