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Heart rate variability (HRV) is more than just a metric; it’s a window into your overall well-being. Whether you’re a fitness enthusiast or simply aiming for a healthier life, understanding and improving your HRV can pave the way for a robust cardiovascular system and a calmer mind. In this guide, we’ll further explain HRV and explore practical strategies and lifestyle changes to enhance it. 

Understanding HRV

HRV represents the variation in time between successive heartbeats, showcasing the intricate interplay between the sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest) branches of the autonomic nervous system. The following factors influence HRV:


As we age, our bodies undergo numerous changes, including shifts in the autonomic nervous system. HRV tends to decrease with age, reflecting these alterations. 


Genetics can set the stage for your baseline HRV, but it’s not fixed. By adopting healthier habits, you can positively shape genetic predispositions, paving the way for a more resilient heart.

Autonomic Nervous System Balance

The autonomic nervous system, comprising the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, affects HRV. Achieving a balance between these systems is crucial for optimal HRV. When in harmony, your HRV reflects this equilibrium, signifying overall well-being. During moments of stress, the sympathetic nervous system takes the lead, overshadowing the parasympathetic influence. This dominance can lead to low heart rate variability, which is not ideal.

What Is a Good Heart Rate Variability?

First, let’s break down heart rate variability into three categories (low, average, and good) so we can understand the differences and why a good heart rate variability is essential for overall well-being.

Low heart rate variability signifies a minimal fluctuation in the time intervals between heartbeats. This condition often indicates a less adaptable autonomic nervous system, which can be a result of chronic stress, anxiety, aging or certain medical conditions. Individuals with low HRV are at an increased risk of cardiovascular problems and other health issues. 

Average heart rate variability falls between the extremes of low and high HRV. It suggests a moderate level of adaptability in response to varying situations and stressors. While it may not immediately raise concerns, having an average HRV makes maintaining a healthy lifestyle all the more important. 

Good heart rate variability represents a healthy and well-functioning autonomic nervous system. In individuals with good HRV, there are noticeable fluctuations in the time intervals between heartbeats, reflecting the body’s ability to adapt efficiently to changing circumstances and stressors. It signifies a balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Good HRV is associated with better cardiovascular health, increased fitness levels and overall well-being. 

Factors Influencing HRV

Understanding the factors that influence heart rate variability is essential for making informed lifestyle choices aimed at preventing adverse effects. These include: 


Stress, the silent disruptor of HRV, can significantly impact your heart’s variability. Chronic stress triggers the body’s “fight-or-flight” response, diminishing HRV. To counteract this, practice stress reduction techniques like meditation, yoga and deep breathing. Box breathing is a simple yet impactful breathing exercise where inhales, exhales and pauses each last for four counts. This rhythmic pattern fosters a calming effect, promoting good heart rate variability.

Box Breathing Exercise:

  • Inhale deeply for a count of four.
  • Hold your breath for another count of four.
  • Exhale slowly for a count of four.
  • Pause and keep your breath out for a count of four.
  • Repeat this cycle for a few minutes, focusing on the steady rhythm of your breath.

Sleep quality

Quality sleep will help you achieve a good heart rate variability. Proper rest allows your body to reset, influencing HRV positively. Disrupted sleep patterns can disturb the natural circadian rhythm, affecting HRV. Improve sleep quality by maintaining a consistent sleep schedule, creating a conducive sleep environment and limiting screen time before bedtime. 

Physical activity

Exercise, when balanced, is an excellent HRV enhancer. Regular aerobic activities like jogging, swimming or cycling elevate HRV by promoting a balanced autonomic nervous system. Avoid overtraining, which can lead to exhaustion and reduced HRV. Instead, find a workout routine that suits your fitness level and gradually increase intensity. Incorporate strength training exercises to boost overall fitness, enhancing your heart’s adaptability.


Staying adequately hydrated is foundational for overall health and indirectly impacts HRV. Hydration supports bodily functions, ensuring your heart operates in its prime. Pair this with a balanced diet rich in diverse, nutrient-dense foods. Emphasize fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats. These dietary choices fuel your body, enhancing its adaptability and resilience, ultimately reflecting improved HRV.

Measuring HRV

HRV assessment is instrumental in gauging stress levels. Remarkably, it can even predict certain health conditions, offering early indicators and paving the way for proactive interventions. Here is some baseline information for choosing, wearing and properly utilizing an HRV monitoring device. 

Choose a Monitoring Device

Popular options for HRV measurement include devices like the Oura Ring, Polar H10 chest strap and smartphone apps like HRV4Training. These tools offer user-friendly interfaces for convenient HRV tracking.

Wear the Device

Proper wearing of the chosen device is essential for accurate readings. Wear chest straps snugly around your chest to ensure optimal contact. Securely strap wearables to your wrist or chest, allowing for comfortable yet firm placement.

Record Baseline Data

Establishing a baseline HRV measurement is crucial. You can do this by measuring your HRV consistently at the same time each day, preferably in the morning before engaging in any physical activity or encountering stressors. This consistent approach provides a reliable baseline for comparison.

Interpreting HRV Data

Understanding HRV data is key to assessing your heart’s health. High HRV typically indicates a healthy autonomic nervous system and lower stress levels. Conversely, lower HRV may suggest imbalances in the autonomic nervous system and heightened stress levels. These metrics are valuable indicators of your overall well-being.

Regular Monitoring

Regular monitoring of HRV is paramount. Tracking your HRV over time allows you to observe patterns and trends, enabling you to make informed decisions about your lifestyle and stress management techniques. Regular monitoring acts as a proactive approach to maintaining heart health and overall wellness.

Final Thoughts

Improving your HRV isn’t just a health goal; it’s a lifestyle choice. By understanding the intricacies of your heart’s variability, you empower yourself to make informed decisions. Implement the strategies discussed here to achieve a balanced autonomic nervous system. You can take the first step towards a healthier heart by learning more about cardiac health at UCF Health.